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chapter 1

  • Learning goals•Composing and responding to recount texts•Accepting and canceling appointment•Offering sympathy and condolenceGrammar•Reflexive and Emphasizing Pronouns•Greeting, parting, introducing oneself and others•Simple Past and “used to”
  • 4. Expressions : Express Greeting, Parting, Introducing Oneself and Other; Offering and Postponing AppointmentKori : Hi, Hetti, how are you doing?Hetti : Pretty good. And how is it going on you?Kori : Not too bad.Nisa : Hello, I am Nisa. What’s your name?Tanti : Oh, hi, Nisa. My name is Tanti.Nisa : Nice to meet you.Tanti : Nice to meet you too.
  • 5. Tanti : I’ve got to go now.Hetti : Why so soon?Tanti : My mum must be waitingfor me at home.Hetti : Ok. I won’t stop you, then.Tanti : Okay, see you later,good bye.Hetti : See you. Bye.Nisa : Hi, Hetti, this is Kori. She ismy class mate.Hetti : Hello , Kori. How do youdo?Kori : How do you do too.
  • 6. COMMUNICATION STEPSExpress Greeting Response•Hello, Bill. •Morning Keith•Morning, John. •Fine, thanks. And you?•How are you doing?•How is life?Introducing oneself and other Response•Hello, I’m Peter. What’s your •Hello, Peter. My name isname? David.•I’d like to introduce myself. I’m •Hi, Albert. Nice to meet you.Ralph.•This is Albert.
  • 7. Express parting Response•See you later. Bye. •So long. Teke care.•Maybe we could get together •Sounds good. I’ll call you later. sometime.
  • 8. Dialog 1Mr. Steve : Good morning, Mr. Joe. How are you?Mr. Joe : Oh, Mr. Steve. I’m fine, and what about you?Mr. Steve : Very well. By the way, I have something important to talkto you.Mr. Joe : Do you? What is it?Mr. Steve : What about discussing it later, after work?Mr. Joe : I see no objection. See you then, Mr. Steve.Mr. Steve : See you, too, Mr. Joe.Dialog 2Grace : Hey, Sue. Have you finished your math assignment?Sue : Not yet, really. What’s up?Grace : Well, I have not either. How about working togetherafter school?Sue : I really want to, but I have had another plan actually.Grace : Really? That’s too bad. Good luck anyway.
  • 9. COMMUNICATION STEPSExpress how to accept appointmentFormal: Informal•I don’t see why not. •Sure.•I’d be happy to…. •No problem.•By all means. •Why not.•I see no objection. •Ok.•I don’t mind….•I should be delighted.Express how to cancel appoinment•I think I can’t… – I’d like to be able to, but…•I didn’t really want to… – I wish I could , but…•I don’t think I could…, actually. – I really want to, but…
  • 10. Grammar : Reflexive and Emphasizing PronounsThese pronouns are used to stress that the action was performedwithout help from others.•Reflexive pronouns indicate that the action is done by and to the sameperson (the subject and the object of the sentence is the same)•Emphasizing pronouns function to emphasize the person or persons bywhom the action is done. Subjective Pronouns Reflexive and Emphasizing Pronouns I Myself You Yourself/yourselves He Himself She Herself They Themselves We Ourselves It Itself
  • 11. Examples of Reflexives :1. I made myself a sandwich.2. My sister and I bought ourselves popcorn at the movie.3. Mother hurt herself with a knife.Examples of Emphasizing :1. I myself did the tasks.2. They prepared their meals by themselves.3. He always goes walking by himself.Tips :To easier remember, Reflexive always put the pronouns afterverb, and emphasizing always put the pronouns after subject orafter verb by adding ‘by’.
  • 12. Expression : Offering Sympathy and CondolenceDialog 1Sam: What’s the matter with you, Phil? Have you been desperate?Phil : Oh, Sam and my dad just got angry with me.Sam: No, really? Whats a terrible thing to have happened?Phil : He said that he didn’t want me to get a bad mark on thenext exams anymore.Sam: I can imagine you feel bad. But, I think your dad is right.Phil : I hate him. Why does he always force me?Sam: Don’t say that. You must get success if you study hard.
  • 13. Dialog 2Roger : Hi, Martina. What’s the latest news on your mother?Martina : She died a week ago. The cancer was too far advanced.Roger : Oh,really? I’m sorry to hear that. It must be pretty hard on you.Martina : It is. Why did she have to die? She is still young.Roger : I know how you must feel.Martina : Well. It is God’s will,isn’t it?
  • 14. COMMUNICATION STEPSOffering sympathy Response:•I’m sorry to hear that. •That’s very kind of you.•That’s too bad. •Oh, well, such is life.•Better luck next time •Thank you.•It must be pretty rough on you. •So it goes, I guess.•What a pity! •I don’t need your sympathy.•I can imagine you eel bad. •Don’t feel sorry for me.•I sympathize with you. •I don’t want your pity.
  • 15. Offering condolence Response•I’m sorry to hear about your father. •Thank you.•Let me offer my condolences. •It’s God will, I suppose.• It must be pretty hard on you. •There is nothing that can•I know how you must feel. be done.
  • 16. Grammar : Simple Past Tense•The simple past tense denotes a past action. It is usually usedwith time signals, e.g.: yesterday, last week, a moth ago, etc.•Very often the simple past tense ends in –ed (regular verbs) butmany verbs of the simple past tense do not end in –ed (irregularverbs).•In questions and negatives, we use did/did not + infinitive. Patterns : Subject + Verb-II ± Object ± Adverb Examples :- She fried an egg for dinner yesterday.- I wrote a letter for my pen pal last week.- Patric did not injure his body in the accident.- Did you enjoy the concert last night?- Where did he buy the merchandises?
  • 17. Verbs ending in –ed (regular verbs)- check  checked- boil  boiled- play  played- study  studied- wait  waited- etc. … Verbs not ending in –ed (irregular verbs)- buy  bought- do  did- give  gave- meet  met- read  read- etc. …
  • 18. Grammar : Used toWe use “used to” to talk about the past. It is not a tense but it islike a tense. It is a special expression. We use the expressionused to for the past only.Do not confuse used to with with the expression be used to.They have different meanings.Structure of Used toThe structure is:(+) S + used to + infinitive ± O ± adverb(-) S + used + not + to + infinitive ± O ± adverbor S + never + used to + infinitive ± O ± adverb(?) Did + S + used + to ± infinitive ± O ± adverb
  • 19. Used or use? when there is did in the sentence, we say use to (without d) when there is no did in the sentence, we say used to (with d)Used to doWe use used to for something that happened regularly in the pastbut no longer happens. I used to smoke a packet a day but I stopped two years ago. Ben used to travel a lot in his job but now, since his promotion, he doesnt. I used to drive to work but now I take the bus.
  • 20. We also use it for something that was true but no longer is. There used to be a cinema in the town but now there isnt. She used to have really long hair but shes had it all cut off. I didnt use to like him but now I do.To be used to doingWe use to be used to doing to say that something is normal, notunusual.•Im used to living on my own. Ive done it for quite a long time.•Hans has lived in England for over a year so he is used to driving onthe left now.•Theyve always lived in hot countries so they arent used to the coldweather here.
  • 21. To get used to doingWe use to get used to doing to talk about the process ofsomething becoming normal for us. I didnt understand the accent when I first moved here but I quickly got used to it. She has started working nights and is still getting used to sleeping during the day. I have always lived in the country but now Im beginning to get used to living in the city.
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